1. PSNS prevalence with the
average level of SNS activity:
This category represents PSNS dominance. This state is usually noted when
a patient is resting or in the first stage of sleep (specifically,
dreamless sleep). In the second stage of sleep, SNS activity is generally
increased, at times markedly. thus this category is differentiated into
four grades, dependent on the state of the PSNS. This category is somewhat
limited, since it can only be noticed in patients with strictly median
values of SNS activity.
2. Increase in PSNS and SNS
This category is subdivided into sixteen different possible combinations
of PSNS/SNS activity. It is characteristic of most healthy subjects.
3. SNS Prevalence:
This category represents an increase in SNS compared to a median value of
the PSNS. From the physiological standpoint, this category represents a
transitional stage between the second and the fourth categories.
4. PSNS decrease with SNS
This category can apply to both clinically ill. and clinically
healthy individuals (defined as those not requiring hospitalisation).
However, the use of the term "healthy" is not always appropriate
because functional imbalance, from stress, physical exhaustion, nervous
tension, infections, intoxication (drug or alcoholic). exacerbation of
chronic conditions, and many other conditions may still be present. In
such cases a decrease in PSNS due to depressed PSNS nerve centres can be
observed, along with a simultaneous sympathetic adrenergic activation,
which is triggered by the struggle of the nervous system to achieve
5. PSNS decrease with an
average level SNS:
This category, like the third, is transitional. Everything that pertains
to the fourth category can be related to it, but here, the SNS activity is
within average values. This means that stress, exhaustion, or nervous
overload is unlikely This category may often reflect a depression in the
receptors of the PSNS, indicating the possibility of pathology.
6. SNS and PSNS
The sixth category, especially at points 3 and 4, reflects a general
involuntary degeneration of both the SNS and PSNS nervous centers. The
majority of cases found in this category are either very old patients or
those with diseases, which cause a significant decrease in the sensitivity
of the entire receptor system along with a partial degeneration of nervous
NOTE: Point (-1, -1) on the coordinate.
is an exception to this category. It represents an/insignificant, general
decrease in ANS and approximates the point of autonomic Balance T can be
interpreted as a borderline value of autonomic balance. At the same time,
this point, along; with (-1, -2), is characteristic of patients with
increased K+ levels (hyperkalemia)
7. Autonomic Balance:
although formally just one point, and all points in its vicinity that
belong to other categories can be interpreted as borderline values of the
8. SNS decrease with PSNS
This category is an
exception to all others because the normal physiology of a person gives
prevalence to the PSNS with average or increased SNS. A dramatic decrease
in the SNS here is unusual. But it is representative of persons with
special training, such as scuba divers for whom a depressed SNS level is
of foremost importance.
NOTE: Point (0,
-1) is and intermediate value between point (1, -1) of group 8 and point
(-1, - 1) of group 6. Of course, a proper physiological interpretation of
these eight categories is only possible within the context of a standard,
general assessment of the patient's overall condition.
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